Upon the completion of the textbook reading and class discussion, the student will be able to:
1. Explain the importance of the fossil record to the study of evolution and
describe how fossils form.
2. Distinguish between relative dating and absolute dating.
3. Explain how isotopes can be used in absolute dating.
4. Explain how continental drift may have played a role in history of life.
5. Discuss how biochemistry is used to establish evolutionary relationships.
6. Explain how the principle of gradualism and Charles Lyell's theory of
uniformitarianism influenced Darwin's ideas about evolution.
7. Describe Jean Baptiste Lamarck's model for how adaptations evolve.
8. Describe how Charles Darwin used his observations from the voyage of the HMS Beagle
to formulate and support his theory of evolution.
9. Describe how Alfred Russel Wallace influenced Charles Darwin.
10. Describe Darwin's theory of natural selection.
11. Explain what evidence convinced Darwin that species change over time.
12. Explain why variation was so important to Darwin's theory.
13. Explain how Reverend Thomas Malthus' essay influenced Charles Darwin.
14. Distinguish between artificial selection and natural selection.
15. Explain why the population is the basic unit of evolution.
16. Explain how microevolutionary change can affect a gene pool.
17. State the Hardy-Weinberg theorem.
18. Write the general Hardy-Weinberg equation and use it to calculate allele and genotype
19. Explain the consequences of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
20. Describe the usefulness of the Hardy-Weinberg model to population geneticists.
21. List the conditions a population must meet in order to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
22. Explain how genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, nonrandom mating and natural
selection can cause microevolution.
23. Explain the role of population size in genetic drift.
24. Distinguish between the bottleneck effect and the founder effect.
25. Explain the difference between geographic and reproductive isolation.
26. List and describe three major causes of genetic variation.
27. Explain the concept of relative fitness and its role in adaptive evolution.
28. Explain why the rate of decline for a deleterious allele depends upon whether the allele
is dominant or recessive to the more successful allele.
29. Describe what selection acts on and what factors contribute to the overall fitness of a
30. Give examples of how an organism's phenotype may be influenced by the environment.
31. Distinguish among stabilizing selection, directional selection and diversifying selection.
32. Define sexual dimorphism and explain how it can influence evolutionary change
33. Define biological species (E. Mayr).
34. Explain how gene flow between closely related species can be prevented.
35. Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms.
36. discuss several prezygotic and post zygotic isolating mechanisms.
37. Explain why many hybrids are sterile.
38. Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation.
39. Explain the allopatric speciation model and describe the role of
intraspecific variation and geographical isolation.
40. Define sympatric speciation and explain how polyploidy can cause reproductive isolation.
41. Define the term parapatry and list an example of this.
42. Explain the difference between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium with an example of each.
43. Explain the concept of adaptive radiation..
44. Explain how mass extinctions could occur and affect evolution of surviving forms.
45. Explain why it is important when constructing a phylogeny to distinguish between
homologous and analogous character traits.
46. Distinguish between homologous and analogous structures.
47. Describe how cladistic analysis may be used to determine branches on phylogenetic trees.
48. Describe the contributions that A.I. Oparin, J.B.S. Haldane, Stanley Miller and Harold
Urey made towards developing a model for abiotic synthesis of organic molecules.
49. Provide plausible evidence to support the hypothesis that chemical evolution resulting
in life's origin:
a. Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers
b. Abiotic synthesis of polymers
c. Origin of genetic information (RNA world hypothesis)
d. compartmentalization of cells inside a membrane
e. evolution of complex life processes
50. describe the endosymbiont hypothesis and the evidence supporting this
50. Describe the basis for Whittaker's five-kingdom system.
51. Describe the domain alternative to the five-kingdom system and explain the rationale for this.
52. List the three domains of living things and the major characteristics of each domain.
53. construct and interpret cladograms and phylogenetic trees.