1. recognize that DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) controls
cellular activity by influencing
the production of enzymes.
2. describe the structure of a nucleotide.
3. describe the structure of the DNA molecule.
4. explain what is meant by complementary base pairing.
5. explain how DNA is able to replicate itself during mitosis and meiosis.
6. correctly define the term template.
7. explain the usefulness of the Watson-Crick model of DNA.
8. define the term polymer and explain why DNA and RNA are polymers.
9. describe the structure of RNA and list three ways it differs in structure from DNA.
10. explain how proteins are synthesized from a DNA template.
11. define the terms transcription and translation.
12. explain the role of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA in the process of protein synthesis.
13. explain how DNA, RNA, and proteins are able to determine
the individuality of an organism.
14. recognize that the work of a cell is carried out by the many different kinds of molecules
it assembles (especially its proteins).
15. recognize that proteins are long, folded molecules composed of up to 20 different kinds
of amino acids which interact to produce specific protein shapes.
16. recognize that enzymes and hormones are proteins.
17. recognize that the specific shape of a protein usually determines its function.
18. realize that offspring resemble their parents because they inherit similar genes that code
for the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.
19. explain why the body cells of an organism can be very different from each other, even
though they have the same genetic makeup.
20. explain what is meant by cloning and list some uses of this.
21. describe the process of genetic engineering and list three uses for this procedure.
22. explain what restriction enzymes are and how they are used.
23. recognize that inserting, deleting, or altering DNA segments can alter genes and that
this alteration may be passed on to every cell that develops from the altered cell.
24. explain what the genetic mapping is.
25. explain what the human genome project is and some potential advantages and
disadvantages of this work.
26. discuss how electrophoresis is used to separate charged molecules such as DNA fragments
27. explain the role of the electric current, wells, agar, buffer, and restriction enzymes in
the process of electrophoresis.
28. explain how karyotyping is used to diagnose Down syndrome.
29. describe the process of amnioscentesis and how it is used in providing cells for analysis
from a fetus.